|The National Ecological Observatory Network is a long term, continental scale ecological monitoring project funded by the NSF. NEON data is collected in 20 ecoregions across the lower 48 states, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, and includes small mammal, insect, soil, plant, and climate monitoring . Nat both terrestrial and aquatic sites. NEON's ecological monitoring began in the San Joaquin Valley Experimental Range in the fall of 2016. Between the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 field season, small mammal trapping captured a dramatic shift in the abundance, species, and population demographics of rodents inhabiting the range: in some areas, capture rates increased by a factor of 4 during peak activity. Blood samples were also collected from captured animals to monitor the presence of lyme, hantavirus, and other rodent-born disease. NEON's broad suite of co-located data measures variation in weather, plant diversity, plant biomass, and soil chemistry. This data suite presents exciting opportunities to monitor this kind of dramatic demographic change in the long term, with in depth data on habitat factors likely to affect rodent activity and the prevalence of rodent-born diseases in the population.