MODELING SCENARIOS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF AXIS DEER (AXIS AXIS) IN HAWAII.
Steven C. Hess; U.S. Geological Survey, PIERC; PO Box 44, Hawaii National Park, HI, 96718; (808) 985-6410; shess@usgs.gov; Seth W. Judge, Lucas B. Forini
Introduced ungulates cause agricultural damage and degradation of native biodiversity throughout Hawaiian ecosystems. These ungulates include feral livestock which have been successfully managed and eradicated on many other oceanic islands, but also more recently introduced wild species which are more difficult to control. The Hawaii Interagency Biosecurity Plan has identified ungulate control as the single most expensive invasive species problem in the state largely because of costly barriers necessary to separate areas managed for sustained-yield hunting from those where ungulates are eradicated. Large numbers of a wild ungulate species, axis deer (Axis axis), have been removed from Maui and Molokai during recent years, partly under product marketing initiatives, but substantial population reductions have not yet occurred. Long-term solutions that are being considered to reduce annual management costs will include land use prioritization modeling with stakeholders to minimize ingress, protect native species from extinction, and to facilitate both population control and sustained-yield hunting. Population modeling would also inform seasonal and daily bag limits to manage for desired levels of abundance; selective removals of females could be particularly effective for reducing adult sex ratio bias and population growth rates similar to "earn-a-buck" programs used in other states to manage overabundant deer.
The Anthropocene: Pathogens & Invasive Species